Main Article Content

Alan Cook
Tara Moss
Chris Malaya


Osteoporosis, Rehabilitation, Bone Densitometry


Objective: Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease worldwide. Although preventable and treatable, the incidence continues to rise. Fracture-associated pain, disability, and premature death are predicted to substantially increase over the next decades. This review is structured to address five primary topics related to osteoporosis: etiology, diagnostics, risk factors, prevention, and treatment, as well as general recommendations.

Method: Literature searches via PubMed and Google Scholar were performed with the following key words: osteoporosis, osteopenia, bone mineral density, DXA, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, bone markers, diet, exercise, hormonal impact, calcium, micronutrients, vitamin D, vitamin K, bone wasting medications, osteoporosis drugs, risk factors.

Results: In total, 188 articles were selected. Given the range of etiologies, a single protocol treatment is rarely effective. This paper discusses the many tools for prevention, diagnostics and treatment accessible to chiropractors that can impart both short- and long-term benefit.

Conclusion: A comprehensive approach to management addressing risk factors, natural compounds, nutrition, and lifestyle modifications, have been shown to be highly effective for this multifactorial disease.


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