THE ASSESSMENT AND CORRECTION OF VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION IS CENTRAL TO CHIROPRACTIC PRACTICE: IS THERE A GAP IN THE CLINICAL EVIDENCE?

Main Article Content

David Russell

Keywords

Vertebral Subluxation Complex; Clinical Practice; Evidence-Based Practice

Abstract

Objective: To describe the evidence supporting the central concept of the assessment and correction of vertebral subluxation as a core clinical objective of chiropractic practice and to identify a gap in the clinical evidence base that may inhibit greater unity around this central concept.


Discussion: Assessment and correction of vertebral subluxation is a central theme in clinical chiropractic practice, embraced by the majority of the practicing profession and chiropractic students. Chiropractic patients report healthcare benefits beyond a period of therapeutic care and their presenting complaints. A potential gap has been identified in the body of clinical evidence supporting chiropractic care for the assessment and correction of vertebral subluxation. Documenting the assessment of commonly used and reliable direct indicators of vertebral subluxation pre and post chiropractic care or a clinical trial may serve to fill this knowledge gap.


Conclusion: The assessment and correction of vertebral subluxation is a core clinical objective in the practice of chiropractic. Chiropractors in clinical practice, chiropractic educators, and chiropractic researchers are encouraged to address the identified gap in the evidence by documenting the common used direct indicators of vertebral subluxation used both in the initiation of care or a clinical trial and at each progress evaluation or post the completion of clinical trial outcome measurements.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.
Abstract 967 | VERTEBRAL SUBLUXATION.pdf Downloads 342

References

1. Hart J. Analysis and adjustment of vertebral subluxation as a separate and distinct identity for the chiropractic profession: A commentary. J Chiropr Humanit 2016;23(1):46-52.
2. Good, CJ. Chiropractic identity in the United States: Wisdom, Courage and Strength. J Chiropr Humanit 2016;23(1):29-34.
3. Rome, P. A basis for the theory of a central chiropractic principle - The vertebral subluxation. Chiropr J Aust 2013; 43(1):2-14
4. Budgell B. Subluxation and semantics: a corpus linguistics Study. J Can Chiropr Assoc 2016; 60(2):190-194
5. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on basic safety and training in chiropractic. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/documents/s14076e/s14076e.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2018]
6. Association of Chiropractic Colleges. The Association of Chiropractic Colleges Position Paper # 1. July 1996. . ICA Rev 1996;November/December.
7. Chiropractic WFo. Definitions of Chiropractic 2015 [Available from: https://www.wfc.org/website/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=90&Itemid=110. [Accessed 18 November 2018]
8. Christensen MG, Hyland JK, Goertz CM, Kollasch MW. Practice Analysis of Chiropractic. Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners; 2015
9. Institute for Alternative Futures. Chiropractic 2025: Divergent Futures . Alexandria, VA. March 2013. Available from http://www.altfutures.org/pubs/chiropracticfutures/IAF-Chiropractic2025.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2018]
10. McDonald WP, Durkin KF, Pfefer M. How chiropractors think and practice: the survey of north american chiropractors. Semin Integr Med 2004; 2:92-98
11. Keating JC, Charlton KH, Grod JP, Perle SM, Sikorski D, et al. Subluxation: dogma or science? Chiropr Osteopat 2005;13:17.
12. de Luca KE, Gliedt JA, Fernandez M, Kawchuk G, Swain MS. The identity, role, setting, and future of chiropractic practice: a survey of Australian and New Zealand chiropractic students. J Chiropr Educ 2018; Article in Press DOI 10.7899/JCE-17-24
13. Repka A, Ebrall P, Draper B. Failure to use vertebral subluxation complex as a diagnostic term: A flaw of reductionistic diagnosis with resultant compromise of student and patient outcomes in chiropractic teaching clinics. Chiropr J Aust 2007; 37 (3): 84-91.
14. Ebrall P. Towards better teaching about the vertebral subluxation complex. Chiropr J Aust 2009;39(4):165-170.
15. Stephenson RW. Chiropractic Textbook. Davenport, Iowa: Palmer School of Chiropractic; 1927.
16. Practice Guidelines for Straight Chiropractic. Paper presented at: Wyndham Conference; May 13-17, 1992, 1992; Chandler, Arizona, USA.
17. Lantz CA. The vertebral subluxation complex part 1: An introduction to the model and kinesiological component. Chiro Res J 1989;1(3):23-36.
18. Gatterman MI, Hansen DT. Development of chiropractic nomenclature through consensus. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1994;17(5):302-309.
19. Leach RA. The chiropractic theories: a textbook of scientific research. 4th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2004.
20. The Rubicon Group. Definition and Position Statement on the Chiropractic Subluxation. [Online] Available at: http://www.therubicongroup.org/#/policies/: The Rubicon Group, 2017:4. [Accessed 18 November 2018]
21. Harvey M. Using chiropractic philosophy to deliver relevant research: The example of the Australian Spinal Research Foundation grant funding process. Chiropr J Aust 2010: 40 (4); 151-153.
22. Senzon SA. Constructing a philosophy of chiropractic I: an Integral map of the territory. J Chiropr Humanit 2010; 17:6–21.
23. Kent C. Models of vertebral subluxation: A review. J. Vertebral Subluxation Res 1996;1(1):1-7
24. Kent C. A four-dimensional model of vertebral subluxation. Dynamic Chiropractic 2011;
25. Harrison DE, Oakley PA. Necessity for biomechanical evaluation of posture, alignment and subluxation. Part I. The 6 subluxation types that satisfy nelson’s criterion for valid subluxation theory. J Contemporary Chiropr 2018; 1(1):9-19
26. Kent CB, McCoy M. Vertebral subluxation research: An agenda to explore the epidemiology of vertebral subluxation and the clinical outcomes related to management. A Vertebral Subluxation Res. August 2013; 29-32
27. The Australian Spinal Research Foundation. Vertebral subluxation research: The development of a research agenda for the Australian Spinal Research Foundation. [Online] Available at: https://spinalresearch.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/The-Research-Agenda.pdf The Australian Spinal Research Foundation, 2017:6. [Accessed 18 November 2018]
28. The Australian Spinal Research Foundation. The Vertebral Subluxation: Conceptual Definition for Research and Practice. [Online] Available at: https://spinalresearch.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/The-Vertebral-Subluxation.pdf: The Australian Spinal Research Foundation, 2017:6. [Accessed 18 November 2018]
29. Nelson C. The subluxation question. J Chiropr Hum 1997;7:46-55.
30. Haavik-Taylor H, Holt K, Murphy B. Exploring the neuromodulatory effects of vertebral subluxation. Chiropr J Aust 2010;40:37-44.
31. Gatterman M, Hansen D. Development of chiropractic nomenclature through consensus. J Man and Phys Ther 1994;17(5):302-309.
32. General Chiropractic Council, UK. Guidance on claims made for the chiropractic vertebral subluxation complex. General Chiropractic Council, United Kingdom; 2010. http://www.gcc-uk.org/page.cfm?page_id=437&fc=1&hi=subluxation#hi [Accessed 18 November 2018]
33. Villanueva-Russell Y. Caught in the crosshairs: Identity and cultural authority within chiropractic. Social Science & Medicine 2011;72(11):1826-1837.
34. International Chiropractic Education Collaboration. Clinical and professional chiropractic education: A position statement. 2017. https://www.mq.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/175755/Educational-Statements-PDF_2017.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2018]
35. Policy Statement by Chiropractic Australia regarding the Vertebral Subluxation Complex. 2015; ChiropracticAustralia.org.au.
36. Ernst E. Chiropractic: A critical evaluation. J Pain Symptom Manage 2008 May;35(5):544-62
37. Good CJ. The great subluxation debate: A centrist's perspective. J Chiropr Humanit 2010; 17:33–39
38. Department of Health and Human Services. Overview of Medicare Policy Regarding Chiropractic Services. July 31, 2012. https://www.cms.gov/Outreach-and-Education/Medicare-Learning-Network-MLN/MLNMattersArticles/downloads/SE1101.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2018]
39. Gemmell h, Miller P. Interexaminer reliability of multidimensional examination regimens used for detecting spinal manipulable lesions: A systematic review. Clin Chiropr 2005; 8: 199—204
40. Daly J. Gallup-Palmer College of Chiropractic inaugural report: Americans’ perceptions of chiropractic. Gallup Inc. 2015. Available from https://www.palmer.edu/uploadedFiles/Pages/Alumni/gallup-report-palmer-college.pdf [Accessed 18 December 2018]
41. Gallup Corporation. Gallup-Palmer College of Chiropractic Annual Report: Americans’ perceptions of chiropractic. 2016. Available from https://www.palmer.edu/uploadedFiles/Pages/Alumni/gallup-report-palmer-college-2016.pdf [Accessed 18 December 2018]
42. Gallup Corporation. Gallup-Palmer College of Chiropractic Annual Report Americans’ views of prescription pain medication and chiropractic care. 2017. Available from https://www.palmer.edu/uploadedFiles/Pages/Alumni/Palmer_Gallup_AnnualReport_2017-final.pdf [Accessed 18 December 2018]
43. World Federation of Chiropractic. Identity consultation: Report and recommendations. Sydney Australia; 2005. https://www.wfc.org/website/images/wfc/docs/ac_powerpoint.ppt [Accessed 18 November 2018]
44. Biggs L, Hay D, Mierau D. Canadian chiropractors' attitudes towards chiropractic philosophy and scope of practice: implications for the implementation of clinical practice guidelines. J Can Chiropr Assoc 1997; 41(3): 145-154.
45. Adams J, Lauche R, Peng W, Steel A, Moore C, Amorin-Woods LG, Sibbritt D. A workforce survey of Australian chiropractic: the profile and practice features of a nationally representative sample of 2,005 chiropractors. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017; 17(14):1-8
46. Hurwitz EL, Coulter ID, Adams AH, Genovese BJ, Shekelle PG. Use of chiropractic services from 1985 through 1991 in the United States and Canada. Am J Public Health 1998; 88:771-776.
47. Christensen MG, Hyland JK, Goertz CM, Kollasch MW. Practice Analysis of Chiropractic. Greeley, CO: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners; 2015
48. General Chiropractic Council. Consulting the profession: a survey of UK chiropractors 2004. London (UK): General Chiropractic Council; 2004. http://www.nightingale-collaboration.org/images/Consulting_the_Profession_A_Survey_of_UK_Chiropractors_2004.pdf. [Accessed 18 November 2018]
49. Beliveau PJH, Wong JJ, Sutton DA, Simon NB, Bussières AE, Mior SA, French SD. The chiropractic profession: a scoping review of utilization rates, reasons for seeking care, patient profiles, and care provided. Chiropr Man Ther 2017; 25(35):1-17
50. Pham MT, Rajic A, Greig JD, Sargeant JM, Papadopoulos A, et al. A scoping review of scoping reviews: advancing the approach and enhancing the consistency. Res Synth Methods 2014 Dec; 5(4): 371–385.
51. Triano J, Budgell B, Bagnulo A, et al. Review of methods used by chiropractors to determine the site for applying manipulation. Chiropr Man Ther 2013; 21(36):1-29
52. Walker BF, Buchbinder R. Most commonly used methods of detecting spinal subluxation and the preferred term for its description: a survey of chiropractors in Victoria, Australia. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1997; 20(9):583-9
53. Owens E. Chiropractic subluxation assessment: What the research tells us. J Can Chiro Assoc 2002;46(4):215-220.
54. Holt K, Russell D, Cooperstein R, Young M, Sherson M, et al. Interexaminer reliability of a multidimensional battery of tests used to assess for vertebral subluxation. Chiropr J Aust 2018; 46(1):100-117
55. Holt K, Russell D, Cooperstein R, Young M, Sherson M, Haavik H. Interexaminer reliability of seated motion palpation in defined spinal regions for the stiffest spinal site using continuous measures analysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2018;41(7):571-579
56. Puhl AA, Reinhart CJ, Injeyan HS. Diagnostic and treatment methods used by chiropractors: A random sample survey of Canada’s English-speaking provinces. J Can Chiro Assoc 2015; 59(3):279-287
57. Triano JJ, McGregor M. Core and complementary chiropractic: Lowering barriers to patient utilization of services. J Chiropr Humanit 2016;23:1-13
58. Cooperstein R, Gleberzon BJ. (2004). Technique systems in chiropractic. Elsevier Health Sciences.
59. Fuhr A, Menke M, Status of Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique, theory and practice. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2005; 28(2):e1-e20.National Upper Cervical Chiropractic Association. http://www.nucca.org/what-is-nucca/ (Accessed February 25, 2018)
60. Cooperstein R. Technique system overview: Thompson Technique. Chiropractic Technique 1995; 7(2):60-63.
61. Rosen MG, Blum CL. Sacro Occipital Technqiue: Technique and analysis. Today's Chiropr 2003; 32(22):24-26.
62. Eklund A, Jensen I, Lohela-Karlsson M,Hagberg J, Leboeuf-Yde C, et al. The Nordic Maintenance Care program: Effectiveness of chiropractic maintenance care versus symptom-guided treatment for recurrent and persistent low back pain – A pragmatic randomized controlled trial. PLoS ONE 13(9):e0203029
63. World Congress of Chiropractic Students. Proposal Summaries. 2010. http://www.wccsworldwide.org/wccs-2010.html [Accessed 18 November 2018]
64. World Congress of Chiropractic Students. WCCS Standard Operating Procedures and Policies. 2017. http://www.wccsworldwide.org/uploads/1/4/9/8/14987660/sopps_2017_-_approved_by_congress_on_01.08.17.docx.pdf [Accessed 18 November 2018]
65. Gliedt JA, Hawk C, M Anderson, K Ahmad, D Bunn, et al. Chiropractic identity, role and future: a survey of North American chiropractic students. Chiropr Man Ther 2015; 23(4)
66. Holt KR, Beck RW. Chiropractic patients presenting to the New Zealand College of Chiropractic teaching clinic: a short description of patients and patient complaints." Chiropr J Aust 2005;35: 122-124
67. Coulter ID, Hurwitz EL, Adams AH, Genovese BJ, Hays R, et al. Patients using chiropractors in North America: who are they, and why are they in chiropractic care? Spine 2002;27(3):291-6
68. Coulter ID, Shekelle PG. Chiropractic in North America: a descriptive analysis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2005;28(2):83-9
69. Alcantara J, Ohm J, Kunz D. The safety and effectiveness of pediatric chiropractic: a survey of chiropractors and parents in a practice-based research network. Explore 2009; 5: 290–295.
70. Brown BT, Bonello R, Fernandez-Caamano R, Eaton S, Graham PL, et al. Consumer characteristics and perceptions of chiropractic and chiropractic services in Australia: Results from a cross-sectional survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2014; 37:219-229
71. Charity MJ, Britt HC, Walker BF, Gunn JM, Forsdike-Young K, et al. Who consults chiropractors in Victoria, Australia?: Reasons for attending, general health and lifestyle habits of chiropractic patients. Chiropr Man Ther 2016; 24:28
72. Russell D, Glucina T, Cade A, Sherson M, Alcantara J. Patient perceived effectiveness of a course of chiropractic care in a teaching clinic following initial exposure to chiropractic through a public spinal screening. Chiropr J Aust 2017; 45(1):1-15
73. Carlton P, Johnson I, Cunliffe C. Factors influencing parents’ decisions to choose chiropractic care for their children in the UK. Clinical Chiropractic 2009;12(1):11-22
74. Peng T, Chen B, Gabriel KP. Reasons and referral sources for chiropractic utilization in U.S. children and adolescents: results from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. J Chiropr Ed March 2018, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 50-81. (abstract from ACC-RAC conference proceedings)
75. Kizhakkeveettil A, Rose K. Health behaviors and beliefs of patients seeking acupuncture and chiropractic care. J Chiropr Ed March 2018, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 50-81. (abstract from ACC-RAC conference proceedings)
76. Humphreys BK, Peterson CK, Muehlemann D, Haueter P. Are Swiss chiropractors different than other chiropractors? Results of the job analysis survey 2009. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2010;33(7):519-535
77. Johl Gl, Yelverton CJ, Peterson C. A Survey of the Scope of Chiropractic Practice in South Africa: 2015. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017; 40:517-526
78. Adams J, Peng W, Cramer H, Sundberg T, Moore C, et al. The prevalence, patterns and predictors of chiropractic use among US adults: Results from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey. Spine 2017;42(23):1810-16
79. Mizel D, Gorchynski S, Keenan D, Duncan HJ, Gadd M. Branding chiropractic for public education: Principles and experience from ontario. World Federation of Chiropractic Congress, Paris. 2001. (Poster Presentation)
80. Russell D, Glucina T, Sherson M, Bredin M. A survey of the public perception of chiropractic after exposure to chiropractic spinal screenings in New Zealand. J Chiropr Humanit 2017; 24(1):9-14
81. Bronfort, G, Hass M, Evans R, Leininger B, Triano J. Effectiveness of manual therapies: the UK evidence report. Chiropractic & Osteopathy 2010; 18(3); 1-33
82. Leboeuf-Yde C, Pedersen EN, Bryner P, Cosman D, Hayek R, et al. Self-reported nonmusculoskeletal responses to chiropractic intervention: a multination survey. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2005;28(5):294-302
83. Russell D, Glucina T. Improvement in quality of life in a female patient with Crohn’s disease following chiropractic care for the correction of vertebral subluxation: A case report. Chiropr J Aust 2018; 46(1):1-10
84. Lachtman DS, Bartha DA, Beltran MM, Dominguez DN, Messerli AR, et al. Rater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of Single and Dual Bubble Inclinometry to Assess Cervical Lateral Flexion. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2015; 38(8):572-80
85. McCoy M, Campbell I, Stone P, Fedorchuk C, Wijayawardana S, et al. Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography. PLoS One 2011; 6(2):e16535
86. Mansholt BA, Vining RD, Long CR, Goertz CM. Inter-examiner reliability of the interpretation of paraspinal thermographic pattern analysis. J Can Chiropr Assoc 2015; 59(2):157-64
87. Owens EF, Hart JF, Donofrio JJ, Haralambous J, Mierzejewski E. Paraspinal skin temperature patterns: An interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004;27:155-9
88. Currie SJ, Myers CA, Durso C, Enebo BA, Davidson BS. The neuromuscular response to spinal manipulation in the presence of pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016;39(4):288-93
89. Kelly S, Boone WR. The clinical application of surface electromyography as an objective measure of change in the chiropractic assessment of patient progress: a pilot study. J. Vertebral Subluxation Res 1998;2(4):1-7
90. Kent C: Surface electromyography in the assessment of changes in muscle activity associated with vertebral subluxation: A review. J. Vertebral Subluxation Res 1997;1(3):1-8
91. Haas A, Russell D. Sustained improvement of heart rate variability in patients undergoing a program of chiropractic care: A retrospective case series. Chiropr J Aust 2017; 45(4):338-358
92. Holt K, Haavik H, Chi Lun Lee A, Murphy B, Elley R. Effectiveness of chiropractic care to improve sensorimotor function associated with falls risk in older people: A randomized controlled trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016; 39(4): p. 267-278.
93. Russell D. Improved spinal range of motion, quality of life, dysponesis & dysautonomia in a 75-year-old male following Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique for the correction of vertebral subluxation: A case report. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res September 2016: 92-6
94. Blanks R, Schuster T, Dobson M. A retrospective assessment of network care using a survey of self-rated health, wellness and quality of life. J Vertebral Subluxation Res 1997; 1:15–27
95. Marino M, Langrell P. Longitudinal assessment of chiropractic care using a survey of self-rated health, wellness and quality of life: a preliminary study. J Vertebral Subluxation Res 1999; 3:1–9
96. Russell D, Kimura M, Cowie H, De Groot C, McMinn E, et al. Changes in Quality of Life in elderly patients receiving Activator Methods Chiropractic Technique: A Case Series. J Chiropr Med 2016; 15(1):59-66
97. Jones D, Glucina T, Cade A, Sherson M, Russell D. Changes in quality of life in 4 older adult patients receiving manual chiropractic care for the correction of vertebral subluxation: A case series. Chiropr J Aust 2018; 46(2):186-194
98. Budgell B, Polus B. The effects of thoracic manipulation on heart rate variability: a controlled crossover trial. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2006; 29(8):603-610
99. Roy RA, Boucher JP, Comtosis AS. Heart Rate Variability modulation after manipulation in pain-free patients vs patients in pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2009;32(4):277-86
100. Eingorn AM, Muhs GJ. Rationale for assessing the effects of manipulative therapy on autonomic tone by analysis of heart rate variability. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 1999;22(3):161-5
101. Welch A, Boone R. Sympathetic and parasympathetic responses to specific diversified adjustments to chiropractic vertebral subluxations of the cervical and thoracic spine. J Chiropr Med 2008; 7(3):86-93
102. Kent C. Heart rate variability to assess the changes in autonomic nervous system function associated with vertebral subluxation. RRNS 2017;1(3):14-21
103. Zhang J, Dean D, Nosco D, Strathopulos D, Floros M. Effect of chiropractic care on heart rate variability and pain in multisite clinical study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2006;29(4):267-74
104. Haas A, Russell D. Improved Nerve Function, Adaptability & Resilience Following Chiropractic Care. Chiro J Aust 2017; 45(4):338-58
105. Currie SJ, Myers CA, Durso C, Enebo BA, Davidson BS. The neuromuscular response to spinal manipulation in the presence of pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2016;39(4):288-293
106. Kelly S, Boone WR. The clinical application of surface electromyography as an objective measure of change in the chiropractic assessment of patient progress: a pilot study. J. Vertebral Subluxation Res 1998;2(4):1-7
107. Kent C: Surface electromyography in the assessment of changes in muscle activity associated with vertebral subluxation: a review. J. Vertebral Subluxation Res 1997;1(3):1-8
108. McCoy M, Campbell I, Stone P, Fedorchuk C, Wijayawardana S, et al. Intra-examiner and inter-examiner reproducibility of paraspinal thermography. PLoS One 2011; 6(2):e16535
109. Mansholt BA, Vining RD, Long CR, Goertz CM. Inter-examiner reliability of the interpretation of paraspinal thermographic pattern analysis. J Can Chiropr Assoc 2015; 59(2):157-64
110. Owens EF, Hart JF, Donofrio JJ, Haralambous J, Mierzejewski E. Paraspinal skin temperature patterns: An interexaminer and intraexaminer reliability study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2004;27:155-9
111. Lakhani E, Nook B, Haas M, Docrat A. Motion palpation used as a postmanipulation assessment tool for monitoring end-feel improvement: A randomized controlled trial of test responsiveness J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2009;32:549-55
112. Gleberzon BJ, Roecker CB, Blum C, Good C, Cooperstein R. Towards the development of a standardized chiropractic technique program. 2018 ACC-RAC – Competencies and Collaboration, Dallas (TX). Available at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Christopher_Good2/publication/324138273_Towards_the_Development_of_a_Standardized_Chiropractic_Technique_Program/links/5ac0dddca6fdcccda65d796e/Towards-the-Development-of-a-Standardized-Chiropractic-Technique-Program.pdf
113. Mankal K, Jenks M. Resolution of obstructive sleep apnea following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. June 12, 2017: 113-8
114. Tabick C, Quintero-Villa J. Improved health outcomes in a multiple sclerosis patient undergoing chiropractic care for vertebral subluxation: A case report & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. November 9, 2017: 221-231
115. Moseson N. Improved gait, balance and coordination in an 85-year-old male undergoing subluxation based chiropractic care: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. February 9, 2017: 1-4
116. Vansen Z. Reduction of blood pressure in a patient receiving chiropractic care: A case study & review of literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. March 6, 2017: 15-33
117. Wild M, McMaster P. Improvement in sensorimotor function, postural stability, joint position sense and reaction time in an asymptomatic 74-year-old male receiving chiropractic care. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. April 10, 2017: 61-3
118. Carney CL, MacCarthy M, Girdis C. Resolution of post-traumatic anosmia following network spinal analysis care: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. February 27, 2017: 8-17
119. Dunton T, Pallis RJ. Improvement in major residual effects of stroke following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. April 17, 2017:64-71
120. Yaun RL, Knowlton B. Effects of chiropractic care in a patient with extramedullary plasmacytoma: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. April 27, 2017: 81-6
121. DeSimone C. Improved ambulation, quality of life and decreased pain in a 64-year-old female with polymyalgia rheumatica & multiple neuromusculoskeletal symptoms undergoing chiropractic care. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. April 24, 2017: 72-80
122. Fedorchuk C, Lightstone D, Moser JH. Improvement in symptoms, cervical alignment & quality of life in a 40-year-old female with fibromyalgia following Chiropractic Biophysics® technique: A case study and selective review of literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. March 13, 2017: 34-46
123. Berry RH, Oakley PA, Harrison DE. Alleviation of chronic headaches by correcting lateral head translation posture (–txh) using Chiropractic Biophysics & Berry Translation Traction. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. May 11, 2017: 87-92
124. Fedorchuk C, Lightstone DF, Andino H. Failed neck surgery: Improvement in neck pain, migraines, energy levels, and performance of activities of daily living following subluxation correction using Chiropractic BioPhysics® Technique: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. May 18, 2017: 93-100
125. Sergent A, Boyle J, Moore A. Chiropractic management of a patient with insidious onset of foot drop. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. June 19, 2017: 119-21
126. McLimon ME, McLimon DG, Krotee MW. Improved intraocular pressure in a 40-year-old female following chiropractic care to reduce subluxation. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. June 1, 2017: 101-12
127. Dick J, Hock S. Improved health outcomes in a military veteran following vertebral subluxation based chiropractic care: A case report. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. September 7, 2017: 147-51
128. Hafer J, Foltz J. Resolution of seizures in a 20-year-old male following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation: A case study & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. July 20, 2017: 122-30
129. Jaszewski E, LaVaille C. Improvement in cervical curve, dysautonomia and quality of life in a patient with multiple sclerosis using the Pierce Results System™: Case study & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. August 7, 2017: 131-41
130. Fox P, Martin S. Improvement in post-traumatic stress disorder following network spinal analysis care: A case study & review of literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. September 28, 2017: 169-75
131. Harden J, Smith B. Remission of ejaculatory pain in 25-year-old male using the Pierce Results System™: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. September 18, 2017: 152-61
132. Labelle S, Steiner M. Resolution of anxiety, depression, insomnia, scoliosis & cluster headaches, in a patient with opioid addiction undergoing chiropractic care to reduce subluxations: A case study & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. October 4, 2017: 176-88
133. Stevens K, Kim C, Jeen P. Improved health outcomes in a patient with multiple sclerosis undergoing chiropractic care: A case study. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. November 20, 2017: 238-42
134. Knowles D, Knowles R, Kotur D. Improvement in heart rate variability in 46 patients undergoing chiropractic with network spinal analysis: A retrospective analysis of outcomes. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. November 16, 2017: 232-7
135. Harden J, Baggett BA. Resolution of systemic lupus erythematosus following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation utilizing the Pierce Results System™: A case report & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. December 18, 2017: 297-311
136. Campbell A, Delander K. Resolution of hypothyroidism & irritable bowel syndrome in a 34-year-old female following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation: A case study & review of the literature. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. October 26, 2017: 209-20
137. Fedorchuk C, Snow E. Increased lung function & quality of life in asymptomatic subjects following reduction in thoracic hyperkyphosis & vertebral subluxation utilizing Chiropractic Biophysics: A case series. A. Vertebral Subluxation Res. October 12, 2017: 189-200
138. Oakley PA, Harrison D. Restoration of barefoot gait in a 75-year old female with cervical spondylotic myelopathy: A case report utilizing Chiropractic Biophysics (CBP®) technique. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:16-27
139. Berry RH, Oakley PA, Harrison D. Alleviation of radiculopathy by structural rehabilitation of the cervical spine by correcting a lateral head translation posture (–txh) using berry translation traction as a part of CBP methods: A case report. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:63-72
140. Borlase O, Russell D, Fox M, Alcantara J. Changes in head circumference and gagging and plantar grasp reflexes after concomitant chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with hydrocephaly: A case report. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:131-7
141. Brozovich TA. The reduction of asthma symptoms and medication after chiropractic care. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:138-43
142. Brown JE, Jaeger JO, Polatis TA, Peters AJ, Oakley PA, et al. Increasing the lumbar lordosis by seated 3-point bending traction: A case series utilizing Chiropractic Biophysics technique. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:144-54
143. Gordon BD. A retrospective study of the management of deformational plagiocephaly with chiropractic care. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:155-74
144. Sergent A. Chiropractic management of a patient with cerebellar atrophy. Chiropr J Aust 20178;45:175-83
145. Russell D. Resolution of lower limb sensory polyneuropathy in a 63-yearold male receiving activator methods chiropractic technique for the correction of vertebral subluxation. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:217-28
146. Ward J, Tyer K, Coats J, Purmoghaddam A, Amonette W. Case series of symptomatology compression rates of chiropractic patients with acute low back pain at 2-weeks and 4-weeks. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:289-303
147. Edwards J, Alcantara J. The care of a pregnant patient with triplets: A chiropractor’s experience. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:324-37
148. Haas AL, Russell D. Sustained improvement of heart rate variability in patients undergoing a program of chiropractic care: A retrospective case series. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:338-58
149. Oakley PA, Harrison D, Haas JW, Listenma SK. Positive outcome with tourette syndrome and chronic tic disorder following chiropractic intervention: A Chiropractic Biophysics® (CBP) case report with a 13-year follow-up. Chiropr J Aust 2017;45:368-76
150. Perrucci RM, Coulis CM. Chiropractic management of post spinal cord stimulator spine pain: a case report. Chiropr Man Ther 2017; 25(5)
151. Gliedt J, Goehl JM, Smith DP, Daniels CJ. Chiropractic management of a geriatric patient with idiopathic neuralgic amyotrophy: a case report. J Can Chiropr Assoc. 2017; 61(1):45-52
152. Cornelson SM, Beavers D, Harvey A, Hogarth W, Ketner NW. Chiropractic care in the management of inactive ankylosing spondylitis: A case series. J Chiropr Med 2017;16:300-7
153. Cupler ZA, Anderson MT, Stancik TJ. Thoracic spondylodiscitis epidural abscess in an afebrile navy veteran: A case report. J Chiropr Med 2017;xx:1-6
154. Lyer MM, Skokos E, Piombo D. Chiropractic management using multimodal therapies on 2 pediatric patients with constipation. J Chiropr Med 2017;16:340-5
155. Neff SM, Okamoto CS. Chiropractic management of a patient with thoracic pain and a stable thoracic aortic aneurysm: A case report. J Chiropr Med 2016;xx:1-5
156. Strunk RG. Multimodal chiropractic care for pain and disability in a patient diagnosed with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome-Hypermobility Type: A case report. J Chiropr Med. 2016;xx:0-9
157. Wasylynko DE. Chiropractic care of a 10-year-old boy with nonorganic gait disorder: A case report. J Chiropr Med 2017;16:175-9
158. Young MD, Young JL. Conservative care of pediatric acquired torticollis: A report of 2 cases. J Chiropr Med. 2017;xx:1-5
159. Corcoran KL, Dunn AS, Formolo LR, Beehler GP. Chiropractic management for us female veterans with low back pain: A retrospective study of clinical outcomes. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017;40:573-9
160. Kizhakkeveettil A, Rosa KA, Kadar GE, Hurwitz EL. Integrative acupuncture and spinal manipulative therapy versus either alone for low back pain: A randomized controlled trial feasibility study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017;xx:1-13
161. Haavik H, Naizi IK, Holt K, Murphy B. Effects of 12 weeks of chiropractic care on central integration of dual somatosensory input in chronic pain patients: A preliminary study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2017;40:127-38
162. Stone-McCoy P, Natori C. Chiropractic care of a toddler with otitis media born premature & exposed prenatally to opiates and amphetamines: A case study & selective review of literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health January 12, 2017: 1-7
163. Harden J, Jaszewski E, Galgano J. Reduction and maintenance of scoliotic and sub-scoliotic curvatures: A follow-up study on children with idiopathic scoliosis undergoing subluxation correction with Pierce Results System. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health February 2, 2017: 16-23
164. Falk DA, Stinson RA. Resolution of breech presentation confirmed by ultrasound following Webster Technique: A case study. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health June 8, 2017: 74-7
165. Colman LA, Jaques CM. Resolution of infertility following chiropractic care for vertebral subluxation: A case study and review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health January 19, 2017: 8-15
166. Edwards J, Alcantara J. The chiropractic care of a patient with harrington rods, scoliosis & back pain during pregnancy. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health March 23, 2017: 32-39
167. Michaeli S, Russell D, Alcantara J. The chiropractic care of a teenager with possible conversion disorder. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health March 9, 2017: 24-31
168. Drobbin D, McClain B. Resolution of breech presentation and successful VBAC in a patient undergoing Webster Technique: A case study & selective review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health April 13, 2017: 44-53
169. Vanderslice KD, Beachum AR. Reduction of labor and delivery time in a pregnant patient undergoing subluxation centered chiropractic care. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health April 3, 2017: 40-43
170. Smolick-Reese E, Balthaser J. Reduction of seizures in a toddler with Lissencephaly undergoing chiropractic care: A case study & review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health October 30, 2017: 169-77
171. Lieberman B, Hapner-Petron S. Reduction of seizures in a four-year-old male with intractable frontal lobe epilepsy following upper cervical chiropractic care: A case study. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health May 15, 2017: 57-64
172. Dodd S, Rhodes C. Resolution of lateral strabismus & hypersensitivity in a 10-year-old receiving chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation: A case report. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health May 4, 2017: 54-6
173. Korthuis MA. Improved allergen-specific IgE Levels in an 8-year-old female following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxation: A case study & selective review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health June 22, 2017: 82-92
174. Walker s, Russell. Resolution of deformational plagiocephaly in a four-month-old male following chiropractic care to reduce subluxations: A case report. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health June 15, 2017: 78-81
175. Tokar CS, Moore RT. Reduction of scoliosis in a 7-year-old male following chiropractic care: A case study & selective review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health May 25, 2017: 65-73
176. Cooper J, Howell L. Resolution of otitis media in 10-year-old child following improved cervical curve using pierce results system: Case study & review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health June 29, 2017: 93-108
177. Hoying M, Alcantara J. Improved health outcomes in a woman experiencing chronic post-partum low back pain. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health July 31, 2017: 128-32
178. Boman C, Wasem A. Improvement in a child with autism following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxations: Case study & selective review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health July 6, 2017: 109-18
179. Stone-McCoy P, Speller A. Vaginal birth after multiple cesareans following subluxation-based chiropractic care: Case study & selective review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health July 13, 2017: 119-27
180. Mancuso M, Cheng J. Improvement in alpha brain waves, coordination and emotional regulation in a pediatric patient with chiropractic care using Network Spinal Analysis. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health August 10, 2017: 133-40
181. Wilson J, Duncan J. Resolution of chronic constipation in a 5-year-old female following chiropractic care: A case study & review of the literature. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health August 17, 2017:141-5
182. Callaway L, Ray SL. Improvement in health outcomes for an infant with type 2 Gaucher disease undergoing chiropractic care: A case report. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health August 24, 2017: 147-50
183. Swift C, Wetterlin K, Alcantara J. Improved health outcomes in an asthmatic child following chiropractic care with Bio-Geometric Integration: A case study. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health September 11, 2017: 151-6
184. Rashid M, Heyns S, Findlay M, Russell D. Reduction in placental insufficiency and normalized fetal growth rate in a pregnant patient following chiropractic care for vertebral subluxation: A case report. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health November 2, 2017: 178-84
185. Russell D. Reduction of sleep bruxism in a 9-year-old child receiving chiropractic care for vertebral subluxation: A case report. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health October 19, 2017: 164-8
186. Warner L, O'Daniel E, Alcantara J. Successful in vitro fertilization following chiropractic care to reduce vertebral subluxations: A case series. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health October 9, 2017: 157-63
187. Shtulman I, Alcantara J. Resolution of double footling breech presentation and successful vaginal twin birth following adjustment of vertebral subluxation. J. Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health December 11, 2017: 185-8
188. Ball R. Resolution of anosmia and other symptoms in a patient with a primary central nervous system tumor following upper cervical chiropractic care. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. July 3, 2017: 31-9
189. Chung J, O'Connell C. Resolution of symptoms in a patient suffering from meniere’s disease following specific upper cervical chiropractic care: A case study & review of literature. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. January 9, 2017: 1-7
190. Humber K, Eberlein EK. Chiropractic management of a patient with metastatic melanoma and upper cervical subluxation. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. December 7, 2017: 49-57
191. Hartenburg M, Denton A. Resolution of seizures & improvement in quality of life in a 22-year-old female with epilepsy following upper cervical chiropractic care. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. February 23, 2017: 8-26
192. Drury R, O'Keefe C. Resolution of symptoms from Arnold-Chiari malformation in a 6-year-old male following reduction of vertebral subluxation with knee-chest upper cervical care: Case report & selective review of the literature. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. May 1, 2017: 12-21
193. Friedman R, Powers S. Improvement in Parkinson’s Disease symptoms following upper cervical chiropractic care: A case study & selective review of the literature. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. June 5, 2017: 22-30
194. Saffron B, Murdock B. Resolution of vision loss in a teenage girl following upper cervical chiropractic care: A case study & review of the literature. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. July 24, 2017: 40-4
195. Scroggin K. Improvement in posture, balance & gait in a child with autism spectrum disorder following Grostic upper cervical chiropractic care: A case report. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. September 14, 2017: 44-8
196. Herman C, Rawlings A. Resolution of cervicalgia following Blair upper cervical technique: A case study & review of the literature. J. Upper Cervical Chiropractic Research. December 21, 2017: 58-64
197. PubMed Health. Randomized control trial (RCT). National Library of Medicine; 2018: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMHT0025811/
198. Hartvigsen J, French S. What is chiropractic? Chiropr Man Ther 2017; 25:30
199. Hosek R, Sullivan S, Owens E, Seckington. Research topics of interest to practicing chiropractors: A pilot study. Journal of Chiropractic Education: March 2018, Vol. 32, No. 1, pp. 50-81. (abstract from ACC-RAC conference proceedings)