Main Article Content
Spinal Manipulation, Chiropractic, Parkinson's Disease, Dyskinesia
Background: Parkinson Disease (PD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease with no known cure. As a result, patients with this diagnosis engage in treatments focussing on the reduction and/or alleviation of symptoms. In the past, several case studies involving spinal manipulation (SM) have reported successful reduction in symptomatology.
Objective: To review the current literature on spinal manipulation (SM) and the associated outcomes on PD symptomatology.
Methods: A review of literature was conducted using Academic Search Premier, CINAHL Complete, MEDLINE Complete, Primary Search, Alt HealthWatch, Information Science and Technology Abstracts, EBSCOhost, PubMed, and Index to Chiropractic Literature.
Results: Only 14 articles were retrieved for this literature review. We found that the quality of the cases studies to be generally strong. One of the weakness of the articles retrieved is that there was only 1 study that involved a sham compared to SM. Some of the articles used Parkinson’s Questionnaire to obtain reports pre and post-treatment, while others relied solely on patient subjective reports. One of the issues in tracking Parkinson’s symptoms is that they vary from patient to patient and there is no gold standard for tracking disease progress.
Conclusion: SM appears to have a positive outcome for patients; various reports of decreased symptomology in relation to PD suggests promise for those who suffer from PD. However, due to the wide array of influence that SM exerts on the central nervous system, a limitation of the current research is the absence of substantia nigra imaging both pre and post SM.
1. [Internet] D. 1995- 1/6/2020.
2. Prevention CfDCa. Leading causes of death https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/leading-causes-of-death.htm: CDC; 2017 [updated March 17, 2017; cited 2019 10/22/2019]. Leading causes of death in the United States ]
3. Evans DW. Mechanisms and effects of spinal high-velocity, low-amplitude thrust manipulation: previous theories. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2002;25(4):251-262. Epub 2002/05/22. doi: 10.1067/mmt.2002.123166
4. Sampath KK, Botnmark E, Mani R, et al. Neuroendocrine response following a thoracic spinal manipulation in healthy men. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(9):617-627
5. Scorza FA, do Carmo AC, Fiorini AC et al. Sudden unexpected death in Parkinson's disease (SUDPAR): a review of publications since the decade of the brain. Clinics (Sao Paulo) 2017;72(11):649-651. Epub 2017/12/14. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2017(11)01
6. Bova J, Sergent A. Chiropractic management of an 81-year-old man with Parkinson disease signs and symptoms. J Chiropr Med 2014;13(2):116-120. doi: 10.1016/j.jcm.2014.06.002
7. de Lau LM, Koudstaal PJ, Hofman A, Breteler MM. Subjective complaints precede Parkinson disease: the rotterdam study. Arch Neurol 2006;63(3):362-5. Epub 2006/01/13. doi: 10.1001/archneur.63.3.noc50312
8. Bello R. Symptomatic Improvement in a patient with Parkinson’s Disease subsequent to upper cervical chiropractic care: a case study. J Upper Cervical Chiropr Res 2011;1(2):31-38
9. Bredin M, Morahan A. Long-term chiropractic care and Parkinson's Disease in a 73-year-old male: a case report. Ann Vertebral Subluxation Res 2015;2015(2):130-143
10. Chung J, Brown J. Reduction in symptoms related to Parkinson’s disease concomitant with subluxation reduction following upper cervical chiropractic care. J Upper Cervical Chiropractic Res 2011;1(1):18-21
11. DiFrancisco-Donoghue J, Apoznanski T, de Vries K, Jung MK, Mancini J, Yao S. Osteopathic manipulation as a complementary approach to Parkinson's disease: a controlled pilot study. Neuro Rehabil 2017;40(1):145-151. Epub 2016/11/05. doi: 10.3233/NRE-161400
12. Elster EL. Eighty-one patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease undergoing upper cervical chiropractic care to correct vertebral subluxation: a retrospective analysis. J Vertebral Subluxation Res 2004:9p-p
13. Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with Parkinson's disease: A case report. J Manipulative Physiol Ther 2000;23(8):573-577. doi: 10.1067/mmt.2000.109673
14. Friedman R, Powers S. Improvement in Parkinson's Disease symptoms following upper cervical chiropractic care: a case study and selective review of the literature. J Upper Cervical Chiropr Res 2017(2):22
15. Landry S. Upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with idiopathic Parkinson's Disease: a case report. J Upper Cervical Chiropr Res 2012;3(2012):63-70
16. Malachowski T, Goode S, Kale BJ. Specific upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with Parkinson’s Disease: A case report. J Upper Cervical Chiropr Res 2011;1(3):50-56
17. Malachowski T, Rubinstein R. Improved health outcomes in Parkinson's Disease utilizing specific upper cervical chiropractic protocol: a case series. J Upper Cervical Chiropr Res 2014;2015(2):23-33
18. Norton M, Callanan M. Reduction in symptoms associated with parkinson's Disease Subsequent to subluxation-based chiropractic care: a case study. Ann Vertebral Subluxation Res 2013;4(2014):23-33
19. Shapiro D, Pickrell N. Chiropractic care of a patient with Parkinson's Disease utilizing Chiropractic Biophysics: a case study. Ann Vertebral Subluxation Res 2012;2012(3):31-40
20. Wells MR, Giantinoto S, D'Agate D, A et al. Standard osteopathic manipulative treatment acutely improves gait performance in patients with Parkinson's disease. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1999;99(2):92-98. Epub 1999/03/18. doi: 10.7556/jaoa.19188.8.131.52